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War is a compelling subject. It is common to almost all known societies and periods of history. The Cambridge History of Warfare provides a detailed account of war in the West from antiquity to the present day, and is unique because of its controversial thesis that war in western societies has followed a unique path leading to western dominance of the globe.
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Observational studies are usually flexible and do not necessarily need to be structured around a hypothesis about what you expect to observe data is emergent rather than pre-existing. The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. The artificial settings of experiments may alter the behaviors or responses of participants.
Using a qualitative framework, cohort studies generally gather data using methods of observation. Can utilize existing data while at the same time generating and testing a grounded theory approach to describe and explain the phenomenon under study. There can be analytical difficulties in moving from philosophy to advocacy and between abstract thought and application to the phenomenal world.
George washington university, november 2011 cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features no time dimension a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. Experimental research is often used where there is time priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect), there is consistency in a causal relationship (a cause will always lead to the same effect), and the magnitude of the correlation is great. Lack of information can severely limit the type of analyzes and conclusions that can be reached.
Often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a cohort study generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from, and who are united by some commonality or similarity. There is no possibility to determine cause and effect relationships since nothing is manipulated. Due to the lack of control over external variables, historical research is very weak with regard to the demands of internal validity.
The research process underpinning exploratory studies is flexible but often unstructured, leading to only tentative results that have limited value to decision-makers. A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes repeated observations. Produces more complete knowledge and understanding of the research problem that can be used to increase the generalizability of findings applied to theory or practice.
Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic. Exploratory research generally utilizes small sample sizes and, thus, findings are typically not generalizable to the population at large. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations in practice. Because cohort studies measure potential causes before the outcome has occurred, they can demonstrate that these causes preceded the outcome, thereby avoiding the debate as to which is the cause and which is the effect. Observational research is useful for discovering what variables may be important before applying other methods like experiments.
Cambridge History - Faculty of History
Work Experience in the History Faculty. In August, two year 10 students from Soham Village College, undertook a week of work experience with the Cambridge Group for the History of Population & Social Structure (CamPop), transcribing historical documents.
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The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of ...
The Cambridge History of Ancient China provides a survey of the cultural history of pre-imperial China. Fourteen of the leading Western specialists, both historians and archeologists, cover the Shang, Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn, Warring States, Neolithic background, language, intellectual history, relations with Central Asia, and debts of both the Qin and Han empires to these earlier time ...
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Analysis can be abstract, argumentative, and limited in its practical application to real-life issues. This provides opportunities for continuous improvement of sampling and methods of analysis. For sequential designs where one phase of qualitative research builds on the quantitative phase or vice versa, decisions about what results from the first phase to use in the next phase, the choice of samples and estimating reasonable sample sizes for both phases, and the interpretation of results from both phases can be difficult. Unlike an experimental design, where there is an active intervention by the researcher to produce and measure change or to create differences, cross-sectional designs focus on studying and drawing inferences from existing differences between people, subjects, or phenomena. The historical research design is unobtrusive the act of research does not affect the results of the study.
Due to multiple forms of data being collected and analyzed, this design requires extensive time and resources to carry out the multiple steps involved in data gathering and interpretation. As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined. A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of people, places, or things. Can increase the likelihood of conflicting results or ambiguous findings that inhibit drawing a valid conclusion or setting forth a recommended course of action e. The researcher is able to collect in-depth information about a particular behavior.
Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses. Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic. While longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period of time, cross-sectional research is focused on finding relationships between variables at one moment in time. Thousand oaks, ca sage, 2013 kemmis, stephen and robin mctaggart. It uses secondary sources and a variety of primary documentary evidence, such as, diaries, official records, reports, archives, and non-textual information maps, pictures, audio and visual recordings. Given this, the number of study participants remains constant (or can only decrease). Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitative research designs with the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively. If two variables are correlated, the cause must come before the effect. There is a need to have a large sample size and accurate sampling to reach representativness. In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made e.History of Art at Cambridge. Our course covers a wide spectrum of art and architecture, from the medieval to modern and contemporary periods. The aim is to foster a wide and deep understanding of art and architecture, and to help you develop visual literacy and awareness, as well as a range of critical and analytical skills.
Redirect support - Cambridge University PressYou may have arrived at this page because you followed a link to one of our old platforms that cannot be redirected. Cambridge Core is the new academic platform from Cambridge University Press, replacing our previous platforms; Cambridge Journals Online (CJO), Cambridge Books Online (CBO), University Publishing Online (UPO), Cambridge Histories Online (CHO), Cambridge Companions Online (CCO ...
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The cyclic nature of action research to achieve its twin outcomes of action e. If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your intepretation of the findings can only apply to that particular case. This provides opportunities for continuous improvement of sampling and methods of analysis. Finding people, subjects, or phenomena to study that are very similar except in one specific variable can be difficult. Can increase the likelihood of conflicting results or ambiguous findings that inhibit drawing a valid conclusion or setting forth a recommended course of action e.
Causal effect (nomothetic perspective) occurs when variation in one phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable Buy now Buy art history research paper Cambridge
Can provide stronger, more robust evidence to support a conclusion or set of recommendations. Appropriate time order -- to conclude that causation was involved, one must see that cases were exposed to variation in the independent variable before variation in the dependent variable. After each sample is analyzed, the researcher can accept the null hypothesis, accept the alternative hypothesis, or select another pool of subjects and conduct the study once again. Closed cohort studies static populations, such as patients entered into a clinical trial involve participants who enter into the study at one defining point in time and where it is presumed that no new participants can enter the cohort Buy art history research paper Cambridge Buy now
Experimental designs can be costly if special equipment or facilities are needed. The strengths of one method can be used to overcome the inherent weaknesses of another method. If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more focused study. Unlike an experimental design, where there is an active intervention by the researcher to produce and measure change or to create differences, cross-sectional designs focus on studying and drawing inferences from existing differences between people, subjects, or phenomena. Heisenberg effect whereby measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the systems.
An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few or no earlier studies to refer to or rely Buy Buy art history research paper Cambridge at a discount
A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes repeated observations. This is a collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in work or community situations. In direct observations, people know that you are watching them. The new interventional strategies are carried out, and this cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of or a valid implementation solution for the problem is achieved. Produces more complete knowledge and understanding of the research problem that can be used to increase the generalizability of findings applied to theory or practice.
Maintaining the integrity of the original sample can be difficult over an extended period of time Buy Online Buy art history research paper Cambridge
The exploratory nature of the research inhibits an ability to make definitive conclusions about the findings. Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof. Note that your research problem determines the type of design you should use, not the other way around! The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively address the research problem logically and as unambiguously as possible. Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct Buy Buy art history research paper Cambridge Online at a discount
This allows the researcher to measure change in variables over time. Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations usually attainable only with experiments. In observational research, findings may only reflect a unique sample population and, thus, cannot be generalized to other groups. Not all relationships are casual! The possibility always exists that, by sheer coincidence, two unrelated events appear to be related e. There is no possibility to determine cause and effect relationships since nothing is manipulated.
Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how). If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your intepretation of the findings can only apply to that particular case Buy art history research paper Cambridge For Sale
As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined. The results from a descriptive research cannot be used to discover a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis. Experimental research designs support the ability to limit alternative explanations and to infer direct causal relationships in the study. Tashakkori and creswell (2007) and other proponents of mixed methods argue that the design encompasses more than simply combining qualitative and quantitative methods but, rather, reflects a new third way epistemological paradigm that occupies the conceptual space between positivism and interpretivism. An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few or no earlier studies to refer to or rely For Sale Buy art history research paper Cambridge
Tashakkori and creswell (2007) and other proponents of mixed methods argue that the design encompasses more than simply combining qualitative and quantitative methods but, rather, reflects a new third way epistemological paradigm that occupies the conceptual space between positivism and interpretivism. Can increase the likelihood of conflicting results or ambiguous findings that inhibit drawing a valid conclusion or setting forth a recommended course of action e. Los angeles, ca sage publications, 2017 gough, david, james thomas, and sandy oliver. Historical records can add important contextual background required to more fully understand and interpret a research problem. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a situation Sale Buy art history research paper Cambridge
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